LL-37: an immunomodulatory antimicrobial host defence peptide.
Beaumont, P. E., Li, H.-N., Davidson, D. J.
In P. S. Hiemstra and S. A. J. Zaat (ed.), Antimicrobial peptides and Innate Immunity. Springer Basel. (2013) p. 97 – 122. Springer
Cationic host defence peptides (CHDP) are conserved peptide components of the innate immune system. These peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides, were originally discovered and described on the basis of their direct microbicidal properties. However, it has become increasingly clear that CHDP, such as the human cathelicidin hCAP18/LL-37, have an extensive range of immunomodulatory properties that can be complementary to microbicidal activity, or may even represent their major antimicrobial function. As a result of its capacity to interact with cells involved in host defence LL-37 can modulate both innate inflammatory processes and interact with the generation of adaptive immunity. CHDP have been implicated in a variety of disease processes at diverse organ sites, and are attracting increasing attention as templates for the development of novel immunomodulatory antimicrobial therapeutics. This review will focus on the antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties of hCAP18/LL-37 and the underlying mechanisms involved in the bioactivity of this peptide.